Final Exam Study Guide (Spring 2012)

History 243 – Foundations of the United States

Sections 301 – H & J

Professor Rogers


Final Examination Study Guide


This study guide should provide you with all of the necessary information to study and do well on the final examination. Students will be provided with a blue book(s) in which to write their answers.


The final examination will be held on the same date but at different times, depending on your section. For the morning class (section H) the exam will be held on Monday, May 21 from 8:30 am to 10:30 am. For the afternoon class (section J) the exam with be held on Monday, May 21 from 1:30 pm to 3:30 pm. Students will have the full period of time in which to complete their exam.



The exam will be broken into two parts: term identification and short answer questions.


Part One – Term Identification (15 points)

Students will be given between ten and fifteen terms drawn from the lectures, of which they will be asked to identify only THREE. Again, students are to select only THREE TERMS to identify. Any terms identified beyond that will be ignored. Each identified term will be worth up to five points, for a total of fifteen points on this part of the exam.


In indentifying terms students are expected to explain WHO or WHAT the term is, WHEN the term took place historically, WHERE the term fits geographical, and, most importantly, give the Historical Significance of the term. When describing the WHEN of a term, a student is not required to always give an exact date – centuries (such as 1600s, 1700s, etc.) or over all time periods (the Medieval Warm Period, the American Revolution, etc.) are acceptable.  When discussing the Historical Significance  of a term students should be sure to stress why the term is important to American history and place in context with other events, people, and historical processes we have discussed in class. Any answer that does not cover all of these points will lose points.


List of possible terms on the test is provided below


Part Two – Short Answer (10 points)

Students will be given between five and ten short answer questions, of which they will be asked to answer TWO. Again, students are only to answer TWO questions. Any questions answered beyond that will be ignored. Each question answered will be worth up to five points, for a total of ten points on this part of the exam.


Answers are expected to be between three to four paragraphs and answer all aspects of the question. Any answer that is either too short or fails to cover every aspect of the question will lose points.




Continental Congress

Continental Association

Olive Branch Petition

Battle of New York

Battles of Trenton & Princeton

Battle of Saratoga

Battle of Yorktown

Pease of Paris (1783)

Patriots & Loyalists



“debt holders”

Pennsylvania Constitution (1776)

Massachusetts Constitution (1780)



Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation

“Republican womanhood”


The Articles of Confederation

Northwest Ordinance

Shay’s Rebellion

Annapolis Convention

Constitutional Convention

3/5s Compromise


“biological racism”

“cultural racism”

gradual emancipation

abolition societies

voluntary manumission

conditional termination


The Hamiltonian Program



Quasi-War with France

Alien & Sedition Acts

“Revolution of 1800”


“populist evangelicals”

“Finneyite evangelicals”

Richard Allen & AME Church


“transportation revolution”

Eerie Canal

“communication revolution”

“industrial revolution”


“cult of domesticity”


Democratic (Jacksonian) Party

Whig Party

“civil society”


The Louisiana Purchase

“the New England argument”

War of 1812

Missouri Controversy & Compromise

Indian Removal Act of 1830

The Trail of Tears

Manifest Destiny

Mexican War (War with Mexico)


Upper (Border) South

Middle South

Lower South


Northern sectionalism

Age of Reform

Horace Mann & Common Schools

“free soil ideology”



Militant abolitionism

David Walker

William Lloyd Garrison & The Liberator

Theodore Weld

“necessary evil” pro-slavery argument

“positive good” pro-slavery argument

Mail Campaign of 1835

Political abolitionism

Liberty Party

Free Soil Party


Wilmot Proviso

Compromise of 1850

Fugitive Slave Act

“popular sovereignty”

Kansas-Nebraska Act


Bleeding Kansas

Dred Scot Decision


Election of 1860

The Secession Crisis

Fort Sumter


Confederate States of America (CSA)

The United States of America (Union)


Crittenden Resolution


Emancipation Proclamation



Author: Roy Rogers

I am currently a PhD candidate in American History at the Graduate Center at the City University of New York (CUNY). My undergraduate education was at Shepherd University (Political Science & History) and I received an MA in History from George Mason University. As a historian, my research interests include early American history, the early American republic (1780 to 1830), political history, religious history, and gender history. I live in Brooklyn with my girlfriend and our cat.

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